JOURNAL OF CONSCIOUSNESS STUDIES
10 (6-7): 7-28 JUN-JUL 2003
Document type: Article Language: English Cited References: 88 Times Cited: 2
Experiments show that psi differs from known physical processes in a variety of ways, and these differences are described herein. Because of these, psi cannot be accounted for in terms of presently known physical laws. A number of theories, of which we review a sampling, suggest ways in which known physical laws might be expanded in order to account for psi. However, there is no agreement on which of these theories, if any, will ultimately provide a general explanation. A further problem in studying psi is that it is elusive, i.e., methods are not presently known by which it can be reliably produced. However, if psi is real, its study can open the door to a new frontier of knowledge and contribute to our understanding of consciousness.
DECISION AUGMENTATION THEORY, PRECOGNITION FORESEE, INFORMATION-TRANSFER, ANOMALOUS PROCESS, GANZFELD RESEARCH, PK TESTS, METAANALYSIS, ESP, REPLICATION, FUTURE
Burns JE, 1525 153rd St, San Leandro, CA 94578 USA
Storm L, Ertel S
127 (3): 424-433 MAY 2001
Document type: Article Language: English Cited References: 43 Times Cited: 15
J. Milton and R. Wiseman (1999) attempted to replicate D. Bern and C. Honorton's (1994) meta-analysis, which yielded evidence that the ganzfeld is a suitable method for demonstrating anomalous communication. Using a database of 30 ganzfeld and autoganzfeld studies, Milton and Wiseman's meta-analysis yielded an effect size (ES) of only 0.013 (Stouffer Z = 0.70, p =.24, one-tailed). Thus they failed to replicate Bern and Honorton's finding (ES = 0.162, Stouffer Z 2.52. p = 5.90 x 10(-3), one-tailed). The authors conducted stepwise performance comparisons between all available databases of ganzfeld research, which were argued not to be lacking in quality. Larger aggregates of such studies were formed, including a database comprising 79 ganzfeld-autoganzfeld studies (ES = 0.138, Stouffer Z = 5.66, p = 7.78 x 10(-9)). Thus Bern and Honorton's positive conclusion was confirmed. More accurate population parameters for the ganzfeld and autoganzfeld domains were calculated. Significant bidirectional psi effects were also found in all databases. The ganzfeld appears to be a replicable technique for producing psi effects in the laboratory.
Storm L, Univ Adelaide, Dept Psychol, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
Univ Adelaide, Dept Psychol, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
Univ Gottingen, Georg Elias Muller Inst Psychol, Gottingen, Germany
Alexander CH, Broughton RS
JOURNAL OF PARAPSYCHOLOGY
65 (4): 397-416 DEC 2001
Document type: Article Language: English Cited References: 31 Times Cited: 0
The right cerebral hemisphere is often associated with psi abilities, yet there is no substantial evidence to support Us claim. Therefore, this study (CL1-Ganzfeld) was designed to examine if a relationship between cerebral hemisphere dominance and ESP performance exists. 50 selected participants were tested for cerebral hemisphere dominance and ESP performance as measured by the Cognitive Laterality Battery (CLB) and the autoganzfeld, respectively. The relationship between ESP scores and personality factors (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator preference scores), geomagnetism, local sidereal time, sender-receiver pairings, and target type was also examined. The selected participants produced a hit rate of 36% (z = 1.60, p =.055) in the autoganzfeld. Although this scoring rate falls just short of statistical significance, the effect size (pi =.63) is in the upper part of previously predicted ranges. Participants categorized as right-cerebral hemisphere dominant scored fewer direct hits in the autoganzfeld than those categorized as left-cerebral hemisphere dominant, but the difference between the 2 scoring rates is not significant. It is concluded that hemisphere dominance, specifically right-hemisphere dominance as measured by the CLB, is not an important factor associated with psi hitting by selected participants in the autoganzfeld.
JOURNAL OF PARAPSYCHOLOGY
59 (4): 289-320 DEC 1995
Document type: Article Language: English Cited References: 10 Times Cited: 9
Research on psychic functioning, conducted over a two-decade period, is examined to determine whether the phenomenon has been scientifically established. A secondary question is whether it is useful for government purposes. The primary work examined in this report was government-sponsored research conducted at Stanford Research Institute (later known as SRI International) and at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC).
Using the standards applied to any other area of science, it is concluded that psychic functioning has been well established. The statistical results of the studies examined are far beyond what is expected by chance. Arguments that these results could be due to methodological flaws in the experiments are soundly refuted. Effects of a magnitude similar to those found in government-sponsored research at SRI and SAIC have been replicated at a number of laboratories around the world. Such consistency cannot be readily explained by claims of flaws or fraud.
The magnitude of psychic functioning exhibited appears to be in the range between what social scientists call a small and a medium effect It is thus reliable enough to be replicated in properly conducted experiments, with sufficient trials to achieve the long-run statistical results needed for replicability.
A number of other patterns have been found, suggestive of how to conduct more productive experiments and to produce applied psychic functioning. For instance, it does not appear that a sender is needed. Precognition, in which the relevant information is known to no one until a future time, appears to work quite well. Recent experiments suggest that, if there is a psychic sense, it works much as our other five senses do, by detecting change. Physicists are currently grappling with an understanding of time, and it may be that a psychic sense scans the future for major change, much as our eyes scan tile environment for visual change or our ears allow us to respond to sudden changes in sound.
The author recommends that future experiments focus on understanding how psychic functioning works and on how to make it as useful as possible. There is little benefit in continuing experiments designed to offer proof, since there is little more to be offered to anyone who does not accept the current collection of data.
Utts J, UNIV CALIF DAVIS,DIV STAT,DAVIS,CA 95616
JOURNAL OF PARAPSYCHOLOGY
58 (2): 149-187 JUN 1994
Document type: Review Language: English Cited References: 132 Times Cited: 2
In the Indian tradition, parapsychological phenomena are not regarded as anomalous, but as normal manifestations of the mind functioning independently of the sensorimotor processes. Classical Indian writings not only offer theoretical insights into psi phenomena, but they also describe methods that can be used to develop psi abilities. This article reviews contemporary attempts to interpret traditional ideas in the context of scientific research and also to review the empirical research carried out by Indian parapsychologists working in India and other countries, as well as the work of parapsychologists from other countries working in India. It is concluded that India is a fertile ground for field investigations such as reincarnation studies and that the Indian investigations have provided significant evidence for a strong relationship between ESP and personality factors and for the relevance of real-life settings to psi testing. Also, Indian studies are significant additions to the parapsychological database in several other areas, including the differential effect, subliminal perception, and meditation.